Character table for the D2d point group

D2d     E       2 S4    C2      2 C2'   2 sd       <R> <p> <—d—> <——f——> <———g———> <————h————> <—————i—————> 
A1        1       1       1       1       1        ... ... ....T ...T... T.......T .......T... ....T.......T
A2        1       1       1      -1      -1        ..T ... ..... ..T.... .T....... ......T.... .....T.......
B1        1      -1       1       1      -1        ... ... T.... ....... ....T.... ...T....... T.......T....
B2        1      -1       1      -1       1        ... ..T .T... ......T .....T... ..T.......T .T.......T...
E         2       0      -2       0       0        TT. TT. ..TT. TT..TT. ..TT..TT. TT..TT..TT. ..TT..TT..TT.


 Symmetry of Rotations and Cartesian products

A1   d+f+2g+h+2i+2j+3k+2l+3m        z2, xyz, (x2y2)2−4x2y2, z4, xyz3, z2((x2y2)2−4x2y2), z6 
A2   R+f+g+h+i+2j+2k+2l+2m          Rz, z(x2y2), xy(x2y2), z3(x2y2), xyz2(x2y2) 
B1   d+g+h+2i+j+2k+2l+3m            x2y2, z2(x2y2), xyz(x2y2), x2(x2−3y2)2y2(3x2y2)2, z4(x2y2) 
B2   p+d+f+g+2h+2i+2j+2k+3l+3m      z, xy, z3, xyz2, z((x2y2)2−4x2y2), z5, xy(x2−3y2)(3x2y2), xyz4 
E    R+p+d+2f+2g+3h+3i+4j+4k+5l+5m  {Rx, Ry}, {x, y}, {xz, yz}, {x(x2−3y2), y(3x2y2)}, {xz2, yz2}, {xz(x2−3y2), yz(3x2y2)}, {xz3, yz3}, {x(x2−(5+2√5)y2)(x2−(5−2√5)y2), y((5+2√5)x2y2)((5−2√5)x2y2)}, {xz2(x2−3y2), yz2(3x2y2)}, {xz4, yz4}, {xz(x2−(5+2√5)y2)(x2−(5−2√5)y2), yz((5+2√5)x2y2)((5−2√5)x2y2)}, {xz3(x2−3y2), yz3(3x2y2)}, {xz5, yz5} 

 Notes:

    α  The order of the D2d point group is 8, and the order of the principal axis (S4) is 4.

    β  The D2d point group is also known as Vd.
       The letter V derives from German ‘Vierergruppe’ (group of four), as D2 is isomorphic to the Klein four-group.

    γ  The D2d point group is generated by two symmetry elements, S4 and either a perpendicular C2 or a vertical σd.
       Also, the group may be generated from any C2 plus any σd plane.

    δ  This point group is non-Abelian (some symmetry operations are not commutative).
       Therefore, the character table contains multi-membered classes and degenerate irreducible representations.

    ε  All characters are integers because the order of the principal axis is 1,2,3,4 or 6.
       Such point groups are also referred to as “crystallographic point groups”, as they are compatible with periodic lattice symmetry.
       There are exactly 32 such groups: C1,Cs,Ci,C2,C2h,C2v,C3,C3h,C3v,C4,C4h,C4v,C6,C6h,C6v,D2,D2d,D2h,D3,D3d,D3h,D4,D4h,D6,D6h,S4,S6,T,Td,Th,O,Oh.

This Character Table for the D2d point group was created by Gernot Katzer.

For other groups and some explanations, see the Main Page.